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Halime Ekici, Shwetha D. Rao, Anders Sönnerborg, Vedam L. Ramprasad, Ravi Gupta and Ujjwal Neogi (2014). J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 69 (12), 3349-3355.

Increased trends of primary drug resistance mutations (DRMs) among treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the non-availability of pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) genotypic resistance testing (GRT) may severely affect future therapeutic outcomes. The main objective of this study was therefore to develop a simplified, cost- and labor-efficient but high-throughput GRT protocol to be applied in the large-scale surveillance of DRMs in LMICs.

Amit Chaudhuri (2014). Frontiers in Immunology, 5, 546.

The M1 and M2 states of macrophage polarization are the two extremes of a physiologic/phenotypic continuum that is dynamically influenced by environmental signals. The M1/M2 paradigm is an excellent framework to understand and appreciate some of the diverse functions that macrophages perform. Molecular analysis of mouse and human macrophages indicated that they gain M1 and M2-related functions after encountering specific ligands in the tissue environment. In this perspective, I discuss the function of recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) receptor tyrosine kinase in regulating the M2-like state of macrophage activation Besides decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to toll-like receptor-4 activation, macrophage-stimulating protein strongly suppresses nitric oxide synthase and at the same time upregulates arginase, which is the rate limiting enzyme in the ornithine biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, RON signaling preserved some of the characteristics of the M1 state, while still promoting the hallmarks of M2 polarization. Therefore, therapeutic modulation of RON activity can shift the activation state of macrophages between acute and chronic inflammatory states.

Lakshmi Mahadevan, Ancy Yesudas, PK Sajesh, S Revu, Prasanna Kumar, Devi Santhosh, Sam Santhosh, JM Sashikumar, VK Gopalakrishnan, Joji Boben, Changanamkandath Rajesh (2014). Indian Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 20, Issue: 2, 175-184.

We have identified that certain variants associated with cardiovascular disease and related drug response in the five genes, especially those in VKORC1, CYP2C19 and MYBPC3, are highly prevalent in the Kerala population, with almost 2 times higher prevalence of CYP2C19*2 variant compared with other regions in the country. Since the variants chosen in this study have relevance in disease phenotype and/or drug response, and are detected at a higher frequency, this study is likely to encourage clinicians to perform genetic testing before prescribing therapy.

Sam Santhosh, Prasanna Kumar, Vedam Ramprasad and Amitabha Chaudhuri (2015). Future Oncology, Vol. 11, No. 2, 279-293.

Targeted therapies have changed the course of cancer treatment in recent years. By reducing toxicity and improving outcome, these new generations of precision medicines have extended patient lives beyond what could be achieved by the use of non-targeted therapies. In the last 2 years, several new molecular entities targeting signaling proteins and immune pathways have gone through successful clinical development resulting in their approval. These new targeted therapies require patient selection and the discovery of biomarkers of response. This review discusses the evolution of targeted therapies in cancer and challenges in translating the concepts into clinical practice.

Rajani Battu, Anshuman Verma, Ramesh Hariharan, Shuba Krishna, Ravi Kiran, Jemima Jacob, Aparna Ganapathy, Vedam L. Ramprasad, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel, Nallathambi Jeyabalan, and Arkasubhra Ghosh (2015). BioMed Research International, Volume 2015, Article ID 940864..

Stargardt disease (STGD) is the leading cause of juvenile macular degeneration associated with progressive central vision loss, photophobia and color vision abnormalities. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and genetic features of Stargardt patients from an Indian cohort.