RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a powerful technique that allows researchers to study the complete transcriptome profiling. A transcriptome is a complete set of transcripts, which includes their quantities as available in the cell, for specific physiological conditions. A complete understanding of the transcriptome gives enormous information on the functional components of the genome, molecular components of cell, tissues and knowledge on disease development.
Different technologies such as hybridization-based, and sequence-based approaches, and specialised microarrays have also been used earlier to study the transcriptome, but they were found to not be very effective for large volumes of data. Development of RNA-Seq based on the high-throughput DNA sequencing method has solved that problem to a great extent.